Sunday, June 16, 2013

HTML and WEB Short Notes

AJAX : Asynchronous JavaScript and XML
Web application use a combination of XHTML, CSS, DOM, XML. Gmail is one example of a web application that utilizes AJAX.

HTML Document is made of HTML Elements like <IMG>, <br> Tag. <br>
Attributes are additional information of HTML Elements
<IMG SRC="abc.jpg"  height="230" width="150">

CGI Common Gateway Interface
CGI allows users visiting a web page to send and receive information from a server.

CSS :Cascading Style Sheet
Help create consistence look and feel of web pages. It help defining the classes of fonts  colors, tables within a .css file/or inline. The developer ever wanted to change the look or feel of their pages could change the CSS file instead of editing each page. 

body { 
font: Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif;
a {
color: #000000;
A:visited { 
color: #005177;
a:hover {
color: #005177;

HTTP : HyperText Transfer Protocol
Is a set of standards that allow users of the World Wide Web to exchange information found on web pages. When wanting to access any web page enter http:// in front of the web address to tell the browser to communicate over HTTP.

Service provided by Internet Service Providers and other companies that allows a user to store and access their web page from the provider's servers.

An Icon, graphic, or word in a document that links to another file or object. The World Wide Web is comprised of hyperlinks linking millions of pages and files to one another.

ICANN Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers
ICANN is responsible for Internet Protocol (IP) address space allocation, protocol identifier assignment, and generic and country code Top-Level Domain names.

Meta tags
Tags within HTML that help define the contents of a web page. Meta tags help Internet search engines and browser display search results and web pages more appropriately.

<meta content="text/html; charset=utf-8" http-equiv="Content-Type">

Identify the content type and charset of the web page being displayed and how to display it.

Contextual advertising
Placing Advertisments on the Internet based on content on the page. The advertising company scan the webpage for keywords to place ads. Google Adsense.

A program used to perform an automated task for the user based on an event, condition or state. an e-mail program can be setup to look for any new e-mail from a server and then tell you about it. Search engines use bots, Price bots help find best prices on internet.

(robots) a bot is a program designed do a specific task such as gather information form websites, Index them. Google Spider index web pages.

a spider software designed to query a web page and parse through all the information and collect information. Search engines use spiders/bots to gather keywords from web pages and sort them in their search engines. 

A bookmark is a method of saving a web page's address on the browser.

Affiliate program
A company or web site that directs customers to another business or web site and receives a percentage of what the customer purchases .

DOM : Document Object Model (DOM)
an Application Programming Interface (API) used in web to access the elements within HTML and XML documents.

Short for eXtensible Stylesheet Language, XSL is a stylesheet for XML documents.

Stylesheet (CSS)
defines the overall look and feel of the HTML elements with font type, colors, etc.

a markup language, similar to a standard language, utilizing various rules, statements and expressions. A good example  is XML.

eXtensible Markup Language,  is a specification developed by W3C.
uses Tags to markup a document, unlike HTML, XML language is unlimited and allows self-defined tags.

 a thread is a portion of a program that is executed in conjunction with the main program that performs another task. A program is capable of having multiple threads open at once and will either terminate or suspend the thread when the thread's task is complete or the program is closed.

Internet browser cache
 Internet cache is used to help improve how fast data is opened while browsing the Internet. each time a web page is opened, it is sent to your browser's temporary cache on your hard disk drive. If that page is accessed again and has not been modified, the browser will open the page from your cache instead of downloading the page again. This saves users a lot of time, especially if that the user is using a modem, and can also help save the web page owner on bandwidth.

PageRank helps sort web pages on the Internet by running the page through an algorithm and giving it a numerical weight that is used to sort results when a user uses the Google search engine.

Agents that automatically search the Internet to obtain information about prices and other attributes of goods and services.

Reciprocal link
Alternatively referred to as a link exchange, a reciprocal link is a link that is placed on a web page in exchange for the other web page to link to your web page.By participating in link exchanges with other popular pages you can increase your rank in search engine results.

A live broadcast of a video or audio presentation. conference calls for investors and live versions of radio shows. e learning.

Search engine
A software program available through the Internet that searches documents and files for keywords and returns the results of any files containing those keywords. (Google)

search engine optimization, SEO is a technique employed on websites otimize it for search engines to help increase the pages overall rank .

Site map
A page that contains a link to all sub pages or major sections of a web site. all what the web site has to offer.

Page Size
page size/weight is overall size of a Web page witall of the file s that are used when displaying the Web page in a browser:  a Web page that has an HTML document that is 10K in size, a 20K image file, and a 5K style sheet file, would have a page size of 35K.

A linked series of web pages, stored at a specific location in the internet.

Web page
A web page is a unit of information from a website, viewed on screen. Web pages are linked to form a website.

W3 Consortium
An international industry consortium founded in 1994 to develop common standards for the evolution of the web.

Home Page
The starting page of a web site. It is a web page can be accessed directly by typing website domain name. It  provides a starting point for a user to use the site. Some sites use a welcome page before home page.

URL : Uniform resource locator (URL)
The address for each data on the internet, which specifies the the location where it is stored. The URL includes the transfer protocol to be used, for example http, the domain name where it is stored, and other information such as its individual file name.

A graphic or piece of text which, when clicked, opens the page or a resource like image, file to which it is linked, on the same website or another site.

a website designed provide all information and links to pages the user is likely to want to access. It is  customisable by the user. ex: 

In HTML, used to indicate the part of a graphic which, when clicked, links to another document on the internet.

Image Map
In HTML, a graphic with invisible links (hot spots) within it. When the cursor is over one of the links, the cursor changes appearance. Clicking on different parts of the image will link to different places on the internet.

On the internet, proxy servers can provide a cache of internet pages, which are pages stored when first accessed so they can be supplied later without the delay of again accessing the internet. HTML resources also cached on local users computer.

frequently asked questions (FAQ)
A list of frequently asked questions and answers about a topic.

A small program that adds functionality to web browsers  to display different file types such as Flash animations. Plug-ins can be downloaded from the web.

Rich Site Summary or Really Simple Syndication. A way of subscribing to a website so that you automatically get notified when new information appears there.

The process of sending information, e.g. a podcast, to another computer. RSS feed.

Short for World Wide Web. Part of the internet, the web is comprised of all the websites which are accessed via the internet.

When information is sent to a client's browser, rather than the client requesting it.
A software filter used to identify spam emails before they reach an inbox.

Active Server Page (ASP)
An Active Server Page is an HTML page that includes one or more scripts (small embedded programs) that are processed on a Microsoft web server before the page is sent to the user.

A small program written in Java and included in an HTML page. It is independent of the operating system on which it runs. Examples are displaying animations, creating chat rooms, time and date functions, etc.

attribute (html tags)
The property of an HTML tag, e.g. "align=center" where align is the attribute, in this example set to centre text, an image, or a table, depending on the tag with which it is used.

Short for robot. An automated program that follows links on a web page, and then performs some action, e.g. indexing the words on a website.

A cookie is a piece of information sent to a browser by a web server when a particular site is visited. The browser then returns that information to the server when that particular website is revisited. For example, an online shopping site might use a cookie to remember which items you've placed in your online shopping cart.

dynamic hypertext mark-up language (DHTML)
An extension of HTML which allows more user interaction within the browser. It also allows the user to read from and write to specific database files. Normally it refers to a combination of Cascading Style Sheets, JavaScript and HTML.

The embed HTML tags <EMBED> </EMBED> allow for a variety of objects to be placed or "embedded" within HTML documents, e.g. Flash movies can be placed in web pages using the embed tags.

eXtensible Hypertext Markup Language (XHTML)
The next generation of HTML, combining HTML and XML.

eXtensible Markup Language (XML)
XML is a standard for creating mark-up languages which describe the structure of data. Website authors can use this to create their own, user-defined, tags.

An HTML page which describes how the frames are laid out, for example, how many there are.

A programming language which enables website authors to provide dynamic content to their sites. Not to be confused with Java.

An automated program that follows hypertext links and then performs some action, e.g. indexing the words on a website.

server side includes (SSI)
SSI scripts are embedded into web pages. The script is executed on the server before the page is delivered to the client machine. An example of use is to include external files inside a page.

meta tag
A particular form of HTML tag which provides information about the document itself, rather than information for the browser on how to display the document.

client side
On the internet, the client side is the user's computer, rather than the web server, and refers to when scripts, for example, are executed by the user's computer rather than the web server.

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